Una propuesta de optimización multicriterio para la asignación de la ayuda oficial al desarrollo: combinando los intereses de los donantes y de los receptores

Palabras clave:

Ayuda oficial al desarrollo, intereses donante, intereses receptor, distribución geográfica de a ayuda, optimización multi-criterio


Es bien sabido que los donantes persiguen diferentes objetivos al conceder su ayuda oficial al desarrollo (objetivos altruistas, basados en los intereses de los receptores, pero también basados en los suyos propios). Este estudio propone una herramienta que posibilita combinar ambos tipos de objetivos, permitiendo a cada donante (bilateral o multilateral) comprender, optimizar y orientar mejor la distribución de su AOD en función de los intereses de ambas partes de la transacción (donante y receptor). Dicha herramienta utiliza curvas de concentración e índices de Suits para determinar una distribución óptima de la ayuda mediante el desarrollo de un programa de optimización restringido que incluya todos los objetivos perseguidos. Además, utilizada a nivel agregado, esta herramienta podría facilitar la coordinación de los donantes para alcanzar los objetivos internacionales de desarrollo. 


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Biografía del autor/a

Yolanda Muñoz-Ocaña, Universidad Loyola Andalucía
Received her  PhD degree in Economics and Business Administration in 2014. She works as Associate Professor at Universidad Loyola Andalucía (Business Management Department).  Her current research interests include entrepreneurship and excellent management systems, as well as issues related to international development cooperation. She is a member of the research group Development Studies Group (GED).
Mercedes Torres Torres Jiménez, Universidad Loyola Andalucía
Profesora área Estadística Departamento Métodos Cuantitativos
Mariano Carbonero-Ruz, Universidad Loyola Andalucía

Doctor in Mathematics in 1995. He Works at the Universidad Loyola Andalucía as a tenured lecturer in the Quantitative Methods Department. His current research interest is computational intelligence, both theoretical research and applications of methods to solve real problems in different areas of Economics and Education. He is a member of the Spanish research groups AYRNA (Artificial Neural Networks and Learning) and MICA (Applied Quantitative Research Methods).

Ana M. Pacheco-Martínez, Universidad Loyola Andalucía

Graduated in Mathematics, Master in Advanced Studies of Mathematics,  doctor in Mathematics and doctor in Computer Science and its Applications from University of Poitiers (2013). She has been working as a lecturer at Universidad de Sevilla and currently at Universidad Loyola Andalucia. Her current research interests are digital images, geometric modelling, Lie algebras and graph theory. She is a member of the Spanish research group TIC245: Topological Pattern Analysis, Recognition and Learning. She also belongs to the MICA (Applied Quantitative Research Methods) at Universidad Loyola Andalucía.


Addison, T., Niño-Zarazúa, M. and Tarp, F. 2015. ‘Aid, Social Policy and Development’. Journal of International Development 27, pp. 1351–1365. DOI: 10.1002/jid.3187.

Aldasoro, I., Nunnenkamp, P. and Thiele, R. 2010. ‘Less aid proliferation and more donor coordination? The wide gap between words and deeds. Journal of International Development 22, pp. 920–940. DOI: 10.1002/jid.1645.

Alvi, E. and Sembeta, A. 2012. ‘Does foreign aid reduce poverty?’. Journal of International Development 24, pp. 955–976. DOI: 10.1002/jid.1790.

Arvin, M., Rice, J. and Carter, B. 2001. ‘Are there country size and middle-income biases in the provision of EC multilateral foreign aid?’ The European Journal of Development Research 13, pp. 49-57. DOI: 10.1080/09578810108426793

Ashoff, G. 2004. ‘Donor Coordination: a Basic Requirement for More Efficient and Effective Development Cooperation’. Briefing Paper 7. Bonn: German Development Institute.

Baulch, B. 2006. ‘Aid Distribution and the MGDs’, World Development 34 (6), pp. 933-950. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.013

Baulch, B. and Le, V.A. 2015. ‘The Progressivity and Regressivity of aid to the Social Sectors’. Journal of International Development 27, pp. 1366-1386 https://doi.org/10.1002/jid.3192

Berthélemy, J.C. 2006. ‘Bilateral Donors: Interest vs. Recipients’ Development. Motives in Aid Allocation: Do All Donors Behave the same?’ Review of Development Economics 10 (2), pp. 179-194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9361.2006.00311.x

Bickenbach, F., Mbelu, A. and Nunnenkamp P. 2018. ‘Is foreign aid concentrated increasingly on needy and deserving recipient countries? An analysis of Theil indices, 1995–2015’. World Development 115, pp. 1-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.11.003.

Bigsten A. and Tengstam S. 2015. ‘International Coordination and the Effectiveness of Aid’. World Development 69, pp. 75-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.12.021

Briggs, R. 2017. ‘Does Foreign Aid Target the Poorest?’ International Organization, 71(1), pp. 187-206. Doi:10.1017/S0020818316000345

Burnside, C., & Dollar, D. 2000. ‘Aid, policy and growth’. American Economic Review, 90(4), pp. 847–868. DOI: 10.1257/aer.90.4.847

Claessens, S., Cassimon, D. and Van Campenhout, B. 2009. ‘Evidence on Changes in Aid Allocation Criteria’. The World Bank Economic Review 23 (2), pp. 185–208. https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/lhp003.

Clark, D. P. 1991. ‘Trade versus Aid: Distributions of Third World Development Assistance’, Economic Development and Cultural Change 39 (4), pp. 829-837.

Collier, P. and Dollar, D. 2002. ‘Aid Allocation and Poverty Reduction'. European Economic Review 46 (8), pp. 1475–500. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2921(01)00187-8

Collins, D. Morduch, J., Rutherford, S. and Ruthven, O. (2009).

Portfolios of the Poor — How the World's Poor Live on $2 a Day. Princeton University Press.

Faust, J. 2011. ‘Donor Transparency and Aid Allocation’. Discussion Paper 12. Bonn: DIE (German Development Institute).

Feeny, S., McGillivary, M. (2008) What determines bilateral aid allocations? Evidence from time-series data. Review of Development Economics, 12 (3), pp. 515-529. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9361.2008.00443.x.

Ghosh, A. and Kharas, H. 2011. ‘The Money Trail: Ranking Donor Transparency in Foreign Aid’. World Development, 39 (11), pp. 1918-1929. DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.07.026

Hansen H., Tarp F., 2000. Policy Arena. Aid Effectiveness Disputed. Journal of International Development, 12; pp: 375-398. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1328(200004)12:3%3C375::AID-JID657%3E3.0.CO;2-M

Hedlin P. 2017. ‘And yet they thrive! Regaining the relevance of a transparency system’. Development and Economic Review, 36 (S1), pp. O495-O513; https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12358

Hoeffler A, Outram V. 2011. ‘Need, Merit, or Self?Interest—What Determines the Allocation of Aid?’ Review of development economics, 15 (2), pp. 237-250. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9361.2011.00605.x

Jones, S. 2012. ‘Innovating foreign aid—progress and problems’. Journal of International Development 24, pp. 1–16. DOI: 10.1002/jid.1758

Knack, S. 2001. ‘Aid dependence and the quality of governance: A cross-country empirical analysis’. Washington, DC: The World Bank

Martinsen, L., Ottersen, T., Dieleman, J.L., Hessel, P., Kinge, J.M. and Skirbekk, V. 2018. ‘Do less populous countries receive more development assistance for health per capita? Longitudinal evidence for 143 countries, 1990–2014’. BMJ Global Health 3: e000528. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000528.

McGee, R. 2013. ‘Aid transparency and Accountability “Built it and They’ll come”?’ Development Policy Review 36, S1, pp. O495-O513. https://doi.org/10.1111/dpr.12022

McGillivray, M. and White, H. 1994. ‘Development criteria for the allocation and aid assessment of donor performance’. CREDIT Research Paper nº 94/7, University of Nottingham.

McGillivray, M., White, H. and Leavy, J. 2002. ‘Aid principles and policy: An operational basis for the assessment of donor performance’, in B. Mak Arvin (Ed.), New Perspectives on Foreign Aid and Economic Development, Westport, Praeger.

Mosley, P. 1987. Foreign aid, its defence and reform. University Press of Kentucky.

Muñoz, Y. and Torres, M. 2014. ‘Basic Social-Services Aid Distribution: Is It Reaching the Most Needy’, Revista de Economía Mundial nº 36, pp. 95-119.

Naciones Unidas 2000. ´Declaración del Milenio´. Resolución A/RES/55/2*. http://www.un.org/es/comun/docs/?symbol=A/RES/55/2

Naciones Unidas 2015. ´Transformar nuestro mundo: la Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible´. Resolución A/RES/70/1. http://www.un.org/es/comun/docs/?symbol=A/RES/70/1

OECD, 2017. Creditor Reporting System (CRS) - OECD Statistics: OECD.stat. https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=CRS1

Snyder, D. 1993. ‘Donor bias towards small countries: an overlooked factor in the analysis of foreign aid and economic growth’. Applied Economics 25 (4), pp. 481-488. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036849300000056

Sotillo, J.A. 2011. ‘El sistema de cooperación para el desarrollo’. Catarata, Madrid.

Suits, D. (1977). “Measurement of Tax Progressivity,” The American Economic Review, 67, 747:752

Tezanos, S. 2008. ‘Modelos teóricos y empíricos de asignación geográfica de la ayuda al desarrollo’. Principios: estudios de economía política 10, pp. 5-39.

Tezanos, S. 2009. ‘Geopolítica de la ayuda ¿Cómo optimizar el impacto de la ayuda sobre el crecimiento?’. Estudios Económicos de Desarrollo Internacional 9 (2), pp. 51-90.

Tezanos, S. 2010. ‘Geopolítica de la Ayuda. Un mapa estratégico para la cooperación del siglo XXI’. Capítulo XII del libro GUERRA, A, TEZANOS, J.F. y TEZANOS, S. (2010), La lucha contra el hambre y la pobreza. Editorial Sistema, Madrid.

Tezanos, S. y Quiñones, A. 2016. ‘Progresividad en la Financiación de la Ayuda Europea al Desarrollo’. Revista de Economía Mundial 42, pp. 149-168.

Woldekidan, H. 2015. The role of foreign aid in reducing poverty: Time series evid3ence from Ethiopia. Journal of Economics and International Finance, 7 (3); pp: 59-71.

Weiler, F., Klöck, C. and Dornan, M. 2018. ‘Vulnerability, good governance, or donor interests? The allocation of aid for climate change adaptation’. World Development 104, pp. 65-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.11.001

Cómo citar
Muñoz-Ocaña, Y., Torres Jiménez, M. T., Carbonero-Ruz, M., & Pacheco-Martínez, A. M. (2022). Una propuesta de optimización multicriterio para la asignación de la ayuda oficial al desarrollo: combinando los intereses de los donantes y de los receptores. Revista de Economía Mundial, (62), 151-170. https://doi.org/10.33776/rem.vi62.6972
Sección General