Ajuste psicológico en cuidadores familiares de adolescentes: un análisis longitudinal durante el confinamiento por la COVID-19 en España

Laura Lacomba Trejo, Selene Valero Moreno, Usue de la Barrera, Marián Pérez Marín, Inmaculada Montoya Castilla

Resumen


Debido al confinamiento por la COVID-19, las familias españolas tuvieron que adaptarse a nuevas situaciones y rutinas. El objetivo de esta investigación ha sido conocer qué variables explicaban el ajuste psicológico de cuidadores familiares de adolescentes ante la COVID-19, mediante un estudio longitudinal (evaluando primero a las 2-3 semanas del inicio del estado de alarma y después tras 8 semanas de su instauración en España). Participaron 32 progenitores de adolescentes. Tras aceptar participar, se evaluó: clima familiar, satisfacción vital, regulación emocional, resiliencia y psicopatología. Se realizaron modelos de análisis comparativo cualitativo de conjuntos difusos (fsQCA). Nuestros datos reflejan que la combinación de psicopatología previa y estrategias de regulación emocional deficientes explicaron la clínica de somatización; y la resiliencia, las habilidades emocionales y el clima familiar positivo, predijeron la satisfacción con la vida. Se señala la importancia de atender a los factores de riesgo y protección para el ajuste de los progenitores de los adolescentes.

Palabras clave


Familia; adolescencia; COVID-19; ajuste psicológico.

Texto completo:

PDF           Cómo citar un elemento

Referencias


Bados, A., Solanas, A., & Andrés, R. (2005). Psycometric Properties of the Spanish Version of Depression,Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS). Psicothema, 17, 679– 683. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/ articulo?codigo=1314066

Barlett, J., Griffin, J., & Thomson, D. (2020). Resources for Supporting Children’s Emotional Well-being during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Recuperado de https://www.childtrends. org/publications/resources-for-supporting- childrens-emotional-well-being-during-the-covid-19-pandemic.

Bendayan, R., Blanca, M. J., Fernández-Baena, J. F., Escobar, M., & Trianes, M. V. (2013). New empirical evidence on the validity of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in early adolescents. In European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 36–43). https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/ a000118

Bobes, J., Bascaran, M., García-Portilla, M., Bousoño, M., Saiz, P., & Wallance, D. (2001). Banco de instrumentos básicos de psiquiatría clínica. Barcelona: Psiquiatría Editorial.

BOE. (2020). Real Decreto 463/2020, de 14 de marzo, por el que se declara el estado de alarma para la gestión de la situación de crisis sanitaria ocasionada por el COVID-19. Real Decreto 463/2020, de 14 de marzo, por el que se declara el estado de alarma para la gestión de la situación de crisis sanitaria ocasionada por el COVID-19.

Brailovskaia, J., & Margraf, J. (2020). Predicting adaptive and maladaptive responses to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: A prospective longitudinal study. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 20, 183-191. https://doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.06.002

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395, 912–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736(20)30460-8

Cabello, R., Salguerao, J. M., Fernández- Berrocal, P., & Gross, J. J. (2012). A Spanish Adaptation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29, 234-240. Doi: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000150

Cameron, E. E., Joyce, K. M., Delaquis, C. P., Reynolds, K., Protudjer, J. L. P., & Roos, L. E. (2020). Maternal psychological distress & mental health service use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 765–774. https://doi.org/ https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.081

Campbell-Sills, L., & Stein, M. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10-item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 1019–1028. https://doi.org/10.1002/ jts.20271

Campbell, A. M. (2020). An increasing risk of family violence during the Covid-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Science International: Reports, 2, 100089. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j. fsir.2020.100089

Ceylan, Z. (2020). Estimation of COVID-19 prevalence in Italy, Spain, and France. Science of The Total Environment, 729, 138817. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j. scitotenv.2020.138817

Clara, I., Cox, B., & Enns, M. (2001). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Depression–Anxiety– Stress Scales in Depressed and Anxious Patients. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 61–67. https:// doi.org/10.1023/A:1011095624717

Claude, R., & Christopher, R. (2014). Acq [Computer Programme] (Version 2.1.12.).

Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. T. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor-Davidson resilience scale (CD?RISC). Depression and Anxiety, 18(2), 76–82.

Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2003). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales: Normative data and latent structure in a large non- clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 111–131.

Daza, P., Novy, D., Stanley, M., & Averill, P. (2002). The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21: Spanish translation and validation with a Hispanic sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 195–205. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016014818163

Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well- being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31, 103–157.

El-Masri, M., Ramsay, A., Ahmed, H. M., & Ahmad, T. (2020). Positive sentiments as coping mechanisms and path to resilience: the case of Qatar blockade. Information, Communication & Society, 1–19. https://doi. org/10.1080/1369118X.2020.1748086

Eng, S., & Woodside, A. G. (2012). Configural analysis of the drinking man: Fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 541–543. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.11.034

Espada, J. P., Orgilés, M., Piqueras, J. A., & Morales, A. (2020). Las buenas prácticas en la atención psicológica Infanto-juvenil ante el COVID-19. Clínica y Salud, 31, 109–113. https://doi.org/10.5093/clysa2020a14

Fairburn, C. (1985). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for bulimia. In D. Garner & P. Garfinkel (Eds.), Handbook of treatment for eating disorder (pp. 160–192). New York: Guilford Press.

Fairburn, C. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy and eating disorders. New York: The Guilford Press.

Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., Lemos-Giráldez, S., & Muñiz, J. (2010). Propiedades psicométricas de la escala de depresión, ansiedad y estrés versión 21 (DASS-21) eun universitarios españoles. Ansiedad y Estrés, 16, 215–226.

Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022- 3514.85.2.348

Inchausti, F., García-Poveda, N., Prado-Abril, J., & Sánchez-Reales, S. (2020). La Psicología clínica ante la pandemia COVID-19 en España. Clínica y Salud, 31, 105–107. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5093/ clysa2020a11

Lee, J. (2020). Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 4, 421. https://doi. org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30109-7

Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of covid-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: A study on active weibo users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 2032. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph17062032.

Liu, C. H., Zhang, E., Wong, G. T. F., Hyun, S., & Hahm, H. “Chris.” (2020). Factors associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic: Clinical implications for U.S. young adult mental health. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113172. https:// doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j. psychres.2020.113172

Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343. https://doi. org/10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u

Ministerio de Sanidad, C. y B. S. (2020). Actualización no 199. Enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19). 03.09.2020. https://www.mscbs.gob.es/profesionales/ saludPublica/ccayes/alertasActual/ nCov/documentos/Actualizacion_199_ COVID-19.pdf

Navarro, J., Vara, M. D., Cebolla, A., & Baños, R. M. (2018). Validación psicométrica del cuestionario de regulación emocional (ERQ-CA) en población adolescente española. Revista de Psicologia Clínica Con Niños y Adolescentes, 5(1), 9–15. https://doi. org/10.21134/rpcna.2018.05.1.1

Neyland, M. K. H., Shank, L. M., & Lavender, J. M. (2020). Theoretical development and maintenance models of binge eating. In G. K. W. Frank, & L. A. Berner (Eds.), Binge eating: A transdiagnostic psychopathology (pp. 69- 82). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. https:// doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43562-2_6

Notario-Pacheco, B., Solera-Martínez, M., Serrano-Parra, M. D., Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, R., García-Campayo, J., & Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor- Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD- RISC) in young adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9(1), 63.

Organización Panamericana de la Salud. (2016). Protección de la salud mental y atención psicosocial en situaciones de epidemias. https://www.paho.org/ disasters/index.php?option=com_ docman&view=download&category_ slug=informes-tecnicos&alias=2539- proteccion-salud-mental-atencion- psicosocial-situaciones-epidemias-2016- 539&Itemid=1179〈=en

Orte, C., Ballester, L., & Nevot, L. (2020). Apoyo Familiar ante el COVID-19 en España. https://www.researchgate. net/publication/341151936_APOYO_ FAMILIAR_ANTE_EL_COVID-19_EN_ ESPANA

Prime, H., Wade, M., & Browne, D. T. (2020). Risk and resilience in family well-being during the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Psychologist, 75, 631-643. https://doi. org/10.1037/amp0000660

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2), e100213. https:// doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213

Ragin, C. C. (2008). Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ribot Reyes, V. de la C., Chang Paredes, N., & González Castillo, A. L. (2020). Efectos de la COVID-19 en la salud mental de la población . Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas, 19(supl.), e3307. Recuperado de http://www.revhabanera.sld.cu/index.php/ rhab/article/view/3307

Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., & Terwogt, M. M. (2006). An alexithymia questionnaire for children: Factorial and concurrent validation results. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 123–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.

paid.2005.05.013

Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M. M., Petrides, K. V, Cowan, R., Miers, A. C., & Tolland, A. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for children. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 95–105. https://doi.org/https://doi. org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.11.015

Rodríguez, A. G., & Labad, J. (2020). Salud mental en tiempos del COVID: reflexiones tras el estado de alarma. Medicina Clínica, 115, 392-394. https://doi.org/https://doi. org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.07.009

Rosati, G., & Chazarreta, A. (2017). El Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) como herramienta analítica. Dos aplicaciones para el análisis de entrevistas. Revista Latinoamericana de Metodología de Las Ciencias Sociales, 7, e018. Recuperado de https://www.relmecs.fahce.unlp.edu.ar/ article/view/relmecse018/8231

Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M. E., & Satici, S. A. (2020). Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its association with psychological distress and life Satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469- 020-00294-0

UN News (7 April 2020). Children vulnerable to abuse and violence during coronavirus lockdowns. https://news.un.org/en/ story/2020/04/1061282

Vázquez, C., Duque, A., & Hervás, G. (2013). Satisfaction with life scale in a representative sample of Spanish adults: Validation and normative data. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16. https://doi.org/10.1017/ sjp.2013.82

Wade, M., Prime, H., & Browne, D. T. (2020). Why we need longitudinal mental health research with children and youth during (and after) the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychiatry Research, 290, 113143. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113143

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Internaional Journal of Enviromental Research and Public Health, 17, 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph17051729

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., McIntyre, R. S., ... Ho, C. (2020). A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 40–48. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j. bbi.2020.04.028

Wilder-Smith, A., & Freedman, D. O. (2020). Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: pivotal role for old-style public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27, 1-4. https:// doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa020

Woodside, A. G. (2013). Moving beyond multiple regression analysis to algorithms: Calling for adoption of a paradigm shift from symmetric to asymmetric thinking in data analysis and crafting theory. Journal of Business Research, 66, 463–472. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2012.12.021

World Health Organization, W. (2020a). Country & Technical Guidance-Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). https://www.who. int/emergencies/diseases/novel- coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance- publications

World Health Organization, W. (2020b). WHO Director-General’s opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020. Recuperado de https://www.who. int/director-general/speeches/detail/ who-director-general-s-opening-remarks- at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11- march-2020

Yang, H.-J., Zhang, Y.-M., Yang, M., & Huang, X. (2020). Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARSCoV-2: a prospective cohort study. European Respiratory Journal, 2002439. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02439- 2020

Yao, H., Chen, J. H., & Xu, Y. F. (2020). Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), e21. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215- 0366(20)30090-0

Zachar, P. (2020). Psychopathology beyond psychiatric symptomatology. Philosophy, Psychiatry and Psychology, 27(2), 141–143. https://doi.org/10.1353/ppp.2020.0021

Zhai, Y., & Du, X. (2020). Loss and grief amidst COVID-19: A path to adaptation and resilience. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 80–81. https://doi.org/https://doi. org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.053

Zhou, F., Yu, T., Du, R., Fan, G., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, J.,... Cao, B. (2020). Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. The Lancet, 395(10229), 1054–1062. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140- 6736(20)30566-3.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33776/amc.v47i175.5190 ';



Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.

------------------------------------------------------------------

e-ISSN: 2173-6855   -   ISSN: 0211-7339

Entidad editora: Universidad de Huelva. Servicio de Publicaciones.

Licencia de uso: Creative Commons 4.0