Mental Health and Interpersonal Relationships Impact in Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Adolescence

Tânia Gaspar, Gina Tomé, Ana Cerqueira, Fábio Botelho Guedes, Marta Raimundo, Margarida Gaspar de Matos

Resumen


Este artículo tuvo como objetivo examinar el impacto de los factores de salud mental y de las relaciones interpersonales sobre los síntomas físicos y psicológicos en adolescentes. La muestra estuvo formada por 8215 estudiantes, de los cuales 4327 fueron niñas (52,7%), con una edad media de 14,36 años (DT = 2,28), que participaron en el estudio Health Behavior in School aged Children/HBSC. Se realizaron estadísticos descriptivos, ANOVA y regresiones logísticas para dos variables dependientes en este estudio: los síntomas psicológicos y los síntomas físicos. En general, las niñas mostraron valores de síntomas físicos y psicológicos, ansiedad / estrés y depresión que fueron menos positivos en comparación con los niños. Los adolescentes mayores mostraron asimismo valores menos positivos en dichas variables, excepto en la variable ansiedad / estrés, que presenta valores más altos en adolescentes más jóvenes. Las niñas y los adolescentes mayores tuvieron valores positivos más bajos con respecto a las relaciones con la familia, los maestros y los compañeros que los niños y los adolescentes más jóvenes. El género femenino, mayores valores de depresión y un menor apoyo de la familia contribuyeron fuertemente a la explicación de los síntomas psicológicos y físicos. La varianza explicada por género y por depresión fue mayor en el caso de síntomas psicológicos en comparación con los síntomas físicos, mientras que la varianza explicada por las relaciones familiares fue mayor en el caso de los síntomas físicos que en los síntomas psicológicos. Este estudio identifica una relación positiva entre la salud mental (menos síntomas físicos y psicológicos, y menor depresión y ansiedad) y relaciones más positivas con la familia, los compañeros y profesores, además de algunas diferencias por género y edad. Estos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones en términos de políticas públicas para el contexto familiar y escolar.


Palabras clave


salud mental; relaciones interpersonales; apoyo social; síntomas físicos y psicológicos; adolescentes.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33776/erebea.v10i0.4957 ';



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