Malaysia, Ecotourism, Soft Infrastructure, Mobile Technology, Structural Equation Modeling


The development of ecotourism in Malaysia is crucial in the current digitalized world, as nature enthusiasts seek authentic travel experiences to reconnect with the environment. This study focuses on investigating the link between government tourism policy, health services, safety and security, destination competitiveness, and the moderating effect of mobile technology. The study was conducted on 170 domestic tourists who visited various national parks in Sarawak, Malaysia. The data collected has undergone preliminary analyses using SPSS 26.0 while the proposed study model was evaluated using WarpPLS 8.0, which allowed for path modelling and bootstrapping to obtain the estimates of standard error and p-values. The results indicated a significant direct relationship between health services and destination competitiveness. Mobile technology was found to moderate the relationship between government tourism policy, safety and security, and destination competitiveness. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the study was limited to domestic tourists, and the implications of these findings are discussed. 


Download data is not yet available.


Author Biography

Jun Zhou Thong, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Jun Zhou THONG is a PhD Candidate at Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Malaysia), with research interests regard tourism management, marketing, and ecotourism. His current research includes projects in digitalization of tourism initiatives, ecotourism development and technology readiness. His articles have been accepted and published in various international journals, such as GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, Studies of Applied Economics, and others, and presented his research at conferences. He is a research officer at current institute and managed various national sponsored research grants.


Adeola, O., & Evans, O. (2019). Digital tourism: Mobile phones, internet and tourism in Africa. Tourism Recreation Research, 44(2), 190–202.

Aga, A. (2019). More being done to address lack of infrastructure. Retrieved from

Agiomirgianakis, G., Serenis, D., & Tsounis, N. (2017). Effective timing of tourism policy: The case of Singapore. Economic Modelling, 60, 29–38.

Al-Maamari, A. (2017). Potential impacts of hard infrastructure development on agricultural trade [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Colorado State University.

Albayrak, T., Caber, M., González-rodríguez, M. R., & Aksu, A. (2018). Analysis of destination competitiveness by IPA and IPCA methods: The case of Costa Brava, Spain against Antalya, Turkey. Tourism Management Perspectives, 28, 53–61.

Andriotis, K., Stylidis, D., & Weidenfeld, A. (2019). Tourism policy and planning implementation: Issues and challenges. Routledge.

Arshad, M. I., Iqbal, M. A., & Shahbaz, M. (2018). Pakistan tourism industry and challenges: A review. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(2), 121–132.

Baggio, R. (2019). Measuring tourism methods, indicators, and needs: Innovation and sustainability. In C., Cooper, & E., Fayos‐Solà (Eds.), The future of tourism (pp. 255-269). Heidelberg: Springer.

Bagheri, M., Shojaei, P., & Khorami, M. T. (2018). A comparative survey of the condition of tourism infrastructure in Iranian provinces using VIKOR and TOPSIS. Decision Science Letters, 7(1), 87–102.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Phillips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(3), 421–458.

Baskakova, I. V., & Malafeev, N. S. (2017). The concept of infrastructure: Definition, classification and methodology for empirical evaluation. Journal of the Ural State University of Economics, 71(3), 29–41.

Bassols, N. G., & Bonilla, J. (2022). Community-based tourism and destination competitiveness: Bridging the gap. Enlightening Tourism, 12(1), 145-176.

Berens, E. M., Vogt, D., Ganahl, K., Weishaar, H., Pelikan, J., & Schaeffer, D. (2018). Health literacy and health service use in Germany. HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice, 2(2), 115–122.

Bramwell, B. (2011). Governance, the state and sustainable tourism: A political economy approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(4), 459–477.

Cantú, C. (2017). Defining infrastructure and its effect on economic growth. Revista de Economía, Política y Sociedad, 13(1), 77–104.

Carayannis, E. G., Ferreira, F. A. F., Bento, P., Ferreira, J. J. M., Jalali, M. S., & Fernandes, B. M. Q. (2018). Developing a socio-technical evaluation index for tourist destination competitiveness using cognitive mapping and MCDA. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 131, 147-158.

Catudan, J. M. J. (2016). The impact of tourist arrivals, physical infrastructures, and employment, on regional output growth. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, 175–184.

Cavalheiro, M. B., Joia, L. A., & Cavalheiro, G. M. do C. (2020). Towards a smart tourism destination development model: Promoting environmental, economic, socio-cultural and political values. Tourism Planning and Development, 17(3), 237–259.

Chambers, L. (2010). Destination competitiveness: An analysis of the characteristics to differentiate all-inclusive hotels & island destinations in the Caribbean [Unpublished thesis]. Rochester Institute of Technology.

Chan, W. C., Ibrahim, W. H. W., Lo, M. C., Suaidi, M. K., & Ha, S. T. (2020). Sustainability of public transportation: An examination of user behavior to real-time gps tracking application. Sustainability, 12(22), 9541–9561.

Chan, W. C., Lo, M. C., Ibrahim, W. H. W., Mohamad, A. A., & Suaidi, M. K. (2022). The effect of hard infrastructure on perceived destination competitiveness: The moderating impact of mobile technology. Tourism Management Perspectives, 43, 2022, 100998.

Chen, C. C., & Tsai, J. L. (2019). Determinants of behavioral intention to use the personalized location-based mobile tourism application: An empirical study by integrating TAM with ISSM. Future Generation Computer Systems, 96, 628–638.

Chin, C. H., & Lo, M. C. (2017). Tourist’s perceptions on man-made elements, natural elements and community support on rural tourism destination competitiveness. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 5(3), 227–247.

Chin, C. H., Lo, M. C., & Wong, W. P. W. (2022). The connection between competitiveness and sustainability in tourism destinations: Examining the hard, soft, and moderating effects of knowledge sharing. Enlightening Tourism, 12(1), 1-32.

Chin, W. W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In V., Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications (pp. 691–711). Heidelberg: Springer.

Clark, J., & Wise, N. (2018). Urban renewal, community and participation. Springer.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Costea, M., Hapenciuc, C. V., & Stanciu, P. (2017). Tourist safety and security: A factor of the competitiveness of secondary tourist destinations. Journal of Tourism – Studies and Research in Tourism, 23, 1–9.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.

da Costa Liberato, P. M., Alén-González, E., & de Azevedo Liberato, D. F. V. (2018). Digital technology in a smart tourist destination: The case of Porto. Journal of Urban Technology, 25(1), 75–97.

Díaz, G. R. (2017). The influence of satisfaction on customer retention in mobile phone market. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 36, 75–85.

Drakulić Kovačević, N., Kovačević, L., Stankov, U., Dragićević, V., & Miletić, A. (2018). Applying destination competitiveness model to strategic tourism development of small destinations: The case of South Banat district. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 8, 114–124.

Dredge, D. (2006). Policy networks and the local organisation of tourism. Tourism Management, 27(2), 269–280.

Dwyer, L., Dragićević, V., Armenski, T., Mihalič, T., & Knežević Cvelbar, L. (2016). Achieving destination competitiveness: An importance–performance analysis of Serbia. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(13), 1309–1336.

Estol, J., Camilleri, M. A., & Font, X. (2018). European Union tourism policy : An institutional theory critical discourse analysis. Tourism Review, 73(3), 421–431.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191.

Fernández, J. A. S., Azevedo, P. S., Martín, J. M. M., & Martín, J. A. R. (2020). Determinants of tourism destination competitiveness in the countries most visited by international tourists : Proposal of a synthetic index. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 1–13.

Ferreira, J. J. M., Fernandes, C. I., & Ferreira, F. A. F. (2019). To be or not to be digital, that is the question: Firm innovation and performance. Journal of Business Research, 101, 583–590.

Fietzer, A. W., & Chin, S. (2017). The impact of digital media on executive planning and performance in children, adolescents, and emerging adults. In F. C. Blumberg, & P. J. Brooks (Eds.), Cognitive Development in Digital Contexts (pp. 167–180). New York: Elsevier Academic Press.

Fino, D., & Andrade, C. (2018). Routes to Fátima: Tourism and security issues (a case study). Journal of Tourism Research, 19, 197–206.

Fitri Amir, A., Pennington-Gray, L., Barbe, D., & Hanafiah, M. H. (2018). Exploring National Tourism Organizations’ (NTOs) use of YouTube to communicate information on destination safety and security. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(16), 247–266.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Fromm, J. (2017). Why millennials are the most important consumer generation for the travel industry. Retrieved from

Fung, K. C., Garcia-Herrero, A., Iizaka, H., & Siu, A. (2005). Hard or soft? Institutional reforms and infrastructure spending as determinants of foreign direct investment in China. Japanese Economic Review, 56(4), 408–416.

Gajić, T., Penić, M., Vujko, A., & Petrović, M. D. (2018). Development perspectives of rural tourism policy - A comparative study of rural tourism competitiveness based on perceptions of tourism workers in Slovenia and Serbia. Eastern European Countryside, 24(1), 143–154.

Gračan, D., Zadel, Z., & Pavlović, D. (2021). Management of visitor satisfaction by using mobile digital tools and services to create concept of smart destination. Ekonomski Pregled, 72(2), 185–198.

Hanafiah, M. F., Hemdi, M. A., & Ahmad, I. (2016). Does tourism destination competitiveness lead to performance ? A case of ASEAN region. Tourism, 64(3), 251–260.

Hanafiah, M. F., Zain, A. M., Asyraff, M. A., & Makhasi, G. Y. M. (2022). The roles of technology acceptance, user credibility and covid-19 perceived health risk in tourist’s social media user-generated-content usage intention. Enlightening Tourism, 12(1), 337-365.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage..

Hall, C. M. (1994). Tourism and politics: Policy, power and place. John Wiley & Sons.

Hanifah, N., Pujianingsih, M. N. C., Pratiwi, D. H., Fahmi, L. A., Anhari, F., & Albayani, T. (2018). Analysis of tourist travel patterns toward health care facilities. Geosfera Indonesia, 3(2), 1–10.

Helbostad, J. L., Vereijken, B., Becker, C., Todd, C., Taraldsen, K., Pijnappels, M., … Mellone, S. (2017). Mobile health applications to promote active and healthy ageing. Sensors, 17(3), 1–13.

Herman, G. V., Ilieș, D. C., Dehoorne, O., Ilieș, A., Sambou, A., Caciora, T., … Lăzuran, A. (2020). Emitter and tourist destination in Romania. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 12(1), 120–138.

Hojeghan, S. B., & Esfangareh, A. N. (2011). Digital economy and tourism impacts, influences and challenges. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 19, 308–316.

Hossain, K. (2019). An analysis of destination attributes to enhance tourism competitiveness in Bangladesh. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(2), 2019, 1–17.

Hsu, S. C., Lin, C. T., & Lee, C. (2017). Measuring the effect of outbound Chinese tourists travel decision-making through tourism destination image and travel safety and security. Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 38(3), 559–584.

Huang, Y. C., Chang, L. L., Yu, C. P., & Chen, J. (2019). Examining an extended technology acceptance model with experience construct on hotel consumers’ adoption of mobile applications. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 28(8), 957–980.

Hussein, Z. (2018). The advantages and disadvantages of the mhealth applications and the intention to use among smartphone users. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(12), 943–947.

Ismet, E., & Abuhjeeleh, M. (2016). The analysis of tourism policies by different governments and their potential implementation in North Cyprus economy. Journal of Political Sciences & Public Affairs, 4(4), 1–13.

Knežević Cvelbar, L., Dwyer, L., Koman, M., & Mihalič, T. (2016). Drivers of destination competitiveness in tourism: A global investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8), 1041–1050.

Koubida, S., Small, M., & Yasin, M. (2017). An analysis of the competitiveness of the Moroccan tourism industry: Implications for policy development and implementation. Journal of Competitiveness Studies, 25(3), 231–249.

Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (1999). Measuring tourist destination competitiveness: Conceptual considerations and empirical findings. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(3), 273–283.

Kozegar Kaleji, L., Hesam, M., & Kazemi, M. (2017). An analysis of influential factors on tourism destinations competitiveness. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 8(2), 393–406.

Kubickova, M., & Martin, D. (2020). Exploring the relationship between government and destination competitiveness: The TALC model perspective. Tourism Management, 78, 104040.

Kubickova, M., & Smith, S. J. (2019). Role of destination competitiveness and national corruption in hotel performance: A study of developing economies of Central America. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 20(3), 354–377.

Kunst, I., & Ivandić, N. (2021). The viability of the travel and tourism competitiveness index as a reliable measure of destination competitiveness: The case of Mediterranean region. European Journal of Tourism Research, 27, 2704.

Lee, C. F., & King, B. A. (2009). Determination of destination competitiveness for taiwan’s hot springs tourism sector using the delphi technique. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 15(3), 243–257.

Lee, Y. H., Lu, C. W., Wu, P. Z., Huang, H. L., Wu, Y. C., & Huang, K. C. (2018). Attitudes and awareness of medical assistance while traveling abroad. Globalization and Health, 14(1), 1–8.

Lemos Baptista, J. M., Pocinho, M., & Nechita, F. (2019). Tourism and public policy. Series V - Economic Sciences, 12(61), 77 – 86.

Li, Q. C., & Wu, M. Y. (2019). Rationality or morality? A comparative study of pro-environmental intentions of local and nonlocal visitors in nature-based destinations. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 11, 130–139.

Liu, P., & Liu, Y. (2016). Smart tourism via smart phone. International Conference on Communications, Information Management and Network Security, 129–132.

Magombo, A., Rogerson, C. M., & Rogerson, J. M. (2017). Accommodation services for competitive tourism in Sub-Saharan Africa: Historical evidence from Malawi. Bulletin of Geography. Socio–Economic Series, 38, 73–92.

Mak, B., Nickerson, R. C., & Sim, J. (2018). Mobile technology dependence and mobile technostress. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 15(4), 1–17.

Masing Laments Mistreatment of Sarawak, Lack of Road Infrastructure. (2020, July 16). Retrieved from

Mendola, D., & Volo, S. (2017). Building composite indicators in tourism studies: Measurements and applications in tourism destination competitiveness. Tourism Management, 59, 541 – 553.

Michael, N., Reisinger, Y., & Hayes, J. P. (2020). The UAE’s tourism competitiveness: A business perspective. Tourism Management Perspectives, 30, 53–64.

Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia. (2017). National Ecotourism Plan 2016 - 2025. Retrieved from

Mishra, S., & Singh, M. (2019). A conceptual framework for effective m-governance. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 14(6), 3514–3535.

Moreno-González, A. A., León, C. J., & Fernández-Hernández, C. (2020). Health destination image: The influence of public health management and well-being conditions. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 16, 1–11.

Mustafa, H., Omar, B., & Mukhiar, S. N. S. (2020). Measuring destination competitiveness: an importance-performance analysis (IPA) of six top island destinations in South East Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(3), 223–243.

Nilashi, M., Samad, S., Manaf, A. A., Ahmadi, H., Rashid, T. A., Munshi, A., … Hassan Ahmed, O. (2019). Factors influencing medical tourism adoption in Malaysia: A DEMATEL-Fuzzy TOPSIS approach. Computers and Industrial Engineering, 137(3), 106005.

Nisha, N., Iqbal, M., & Rifat, A. (2019). The changing paradigm of health and mobile phones: An innovation in the health care system. Journal of Global Information Management, 27(1), 19 – 46.

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (2nd Edition). McGraw-Hill.

Ogunjimi, J. A., & Amune, B. O. (2019). Impact of infrastructure on foreign direct investment in Nigeria: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 10(9), 6–14.

Ordonez De Pablos, P., & Aung, Z. M. (2017). Tourism and opportunities for economic development in Asia. IGI Global.

Oughton, E., Frias, Z., Russell, T., Sicker, D., & Cleevely, D. D. (2018). Towards 5G: Scenario-based assessment of the future supply and demand for mobile telecommunications infrastructure. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 133, 141–155.

Owiyo, V. (2018). Strategic determinants of destination competitiveness: A case of western tourist circuit, Kenya [Unpublished master’s thesis]. Rongo University.

Palumbo, F. (2015). Developing a new service for the digital traveler satisfaction: The Smart Tourist App. The International Journal of Digital Accounting Research, 15(2), 33–67.

Paraskevas, A. (2020). Cybersecurity in Travel and Tourism: A Risk-Based Approach. In Z. Xiang, M. Fuchs, U. Gretzel, & W. Höpken (Eds.), Handbook of e-Tourism (pp. 1-24). London: Springer.

Pearce, P. L., & Wu, M. Y. (2015). Soft infrastructure at tourism sites: Identifying key issues for Asian tourism from case studies. Tourism Recreation Research, 40(1), 120–132.

Perić, M., Durkin, J., & Vitezić, V. (2018). Active event sport tourism experience: The role of the natural environment, safety and security in event business models. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 13(5), 758–772.

Phuthong, T., Anuntavoranich, P., Chandrachai, A., & Piromsopa, K. (2022). Developing and validating an assessment scale to measure the competitiveness of wellness destinations. Sustainability, 14(7), 4152-4178.

Poku, G., & Boakye, K. A. A. (2019). Insights into the safety and security expressions of visitors to the Kakum National Park: Implications for management. Tourism Management Perspectives, 32, 100562.

Prajawati, M. I. (2020). Competitiveness of Sharia tourism destination. Management and Economics Journal, 4(1), 73–80.

Ramos-Soler, I., Martínez-Sala, A. M., & Campillo-Alhama, C. (2019). ICT and the sustainability ofworld heritage sites. Analysis of senior citizens’ use of tourism apps. Sustainability, 11(11), 3203–3220.

Ramukumba, T. (2019). Analysing tourism stakeholder’s perceptions of the attractiveness and competitiveness of the Garden Route as a tourist destination. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(1), 1–9.

Rehman, C. A., Ilyas, M., Mobeen Alam, H., & Akram, M. (2011). The impact of infrastructure on foreign direct investment: The case of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(5), 268–276.

Salinas Fernández, J. A., Serdeira Azevedo, P., Martín Martín, J. M., & Rodríguez Martín, J. A. (2020). Determinants of tourism destination competitiveness in the countries most visited by international tourists: Proposal of a synthetic index. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33, 100582.

Seckman, D. (2019). Mobile technology use as a moderator for understanding the relationship between intrinsic motivation and grades [Unpublished doctoral’s thesis]. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee.

Seetanah, B. (2019). Telecommunication and tourism development : An island perspective. Tourism Review, 74(4), 815–829.

Seetanah, B., Padachi, K., Sannassee, R. V., & Juwaheer, R. (2016). Soft infrastructure in tourism development. The 2016 International Academic Research Conference in Milan, 342–412.

Sharma, A., Pulido-Fernández, J. I., & Hassan, A. (2019). Sustainable destination branding and marketing strategies for tourism development. CABI.

Sheppard, V. A., & Fennell, D. A. (2019). Progress in tourism public sector policy: Toward an ethic for non-human animals. Tourism Management, 73, 134–142.

Shrestha, D., Wenan, T., Adhikari, B., Shrestha, D., Khadka, A., & Jeong, S. R. (2021). Design and analysis of mobile-based tourism security application: Concepts, artifacts and challenges. Information and Security, 47(1), 201–219.

Singh, M., Bhanotra, A., Wani, S. A., & Kumar, M. (2016). Mobile phone technology- An eminent ICT tool for better family farming. Family Farming and Rural Development, 287–291.

Siuhi, S., & Mwakalonge, J. (2016). Opportunities and challenges of smart mobile applications in transportation. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 3(6), 582–592.

Tang, X. (2017). The historical evolution of China’s tourism development policies (1949–2013) – A quantitative research approach. Tourism Management, 58, 259–269.

Thomas, J. (2020). Federal boost for nine ecotourism clusters in Sarawak. Retrieved from

Thong, J. Z., Lo, M. C., Ramayah, T., & Mohamad, A. A. (2022). Destination resources as precursors of ecotourism competitiveness: a study of totally protected areas in Sarawak, Malaysia during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Ecotourism. Advance online publication.

Thong, J. Z., Mohamad, A. A., & Lo, M. C. (2020). Endowed and created resources towards ecotourism competitiveness: Natural protected areas in Sarawak. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites, 32(4), 2020, 1252–1258.

Tonny, J., & Wulan, P. (2020). Determining priority infrastructure provision for supporting agrotourism development using AHP method. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 830(2), 022036.

Turner, C. (2020). Soft infrastructure. In The Infrastructured State: Territoriality and the National Infrastructure System (pp. 130–151). Edinburgh: Edward Elgar.

Uchenna, H. O., Okechukwu, O. A., & Elochukwu, A. N.(2016). A study on safety and security issues at selected tourist sites. International Journal of Research in Arts and Social Sciences, 9(1), 66–77.

Vaughan-Morris, G. (2012, October 18). Strategic infrastructure. Steps to prioritize and deliver infrastructure effectively and efficiently. Retrieved from

Vervier, L. S., Valdez, A. C., & Ziefle, M. (2019). “Attitude”- mHealth apps and users’ insights: An empirical approach to understand the antecedents of attitudes towards mHealth applications. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Ageing Well and e-Health, 213–221.

Wang, F., & Lopez, C. (2020). Does communicating safety matter? Annals of Tourism Research, 80, 1-12.

Wilopo, W., Iqbal, M., Alfisyahr, R., & Irawan, A. (2020). Strategic issues of tourism destination in Indonesia: Are they market ready? International Journal of Entrepreneurship, 24(2), 1–16.

World Bank Group. (2020). Rebuilding tourism competitiveness: Tourism response, recovery and resilience to the COVID-19 crisis. Retrieved from ism-Competitiveness-Tourism-response-recovery-and-resilience-to-the-COVID-19-cri sis.pdf?sequence=5

Yang, L. (2019). Analysis of Mobile Technology Development Based on the Dual Perspectives of Tourism Managers and Customers. 2019 International Symposium on Education and Humanities Sciences (ISEHS 2019), 366–371.

Zehrer, A., Smeral, E., & Hallmann, K. (2017). Destination competitiveness - A comparison of subjective and objective indicators for winter sports areas. Journal of Travel Research, 56(1), 55–66.

Zhu, H., Wu, C. K., Koo, C. H., Tsang, Y. T., Liu, Y., Chi, H. R., & Tsang, K. F. (2019). Smart healthcare in the era of Internet-of-Things. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 8(5), 26 – 30.

Zimano, F. R., & Ruffin, F. (2018). Palpable linkage of supply chain performance to hard and soft infrastructure marriage: The case of SADC Road Entry Point Management Systems. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 30(3), 349–365.

How to Cite